Urine Collection and Testing Procedures and Alternative Methods for Monitoring Drug Use Urine testing is the best developed and most commonly used monitoring technique in substance abuse treatment programs. Clients generally need more frequent monitoring during the initial stages of treatment when they are trying to achieve abstinence but still may be using substances.
Urinalysis Urine analysis is primarily used because of its low cost. Urine drug testing is one of the most common testing methods used. The enzyme-multiplied immune test is the most frequently used urinalysis.
Complaints have been made about the relatively high rates of false positives using this test. The level of drug or its metabolites is not predictive of when the drug was taken or how much the patient used.
Rather, it is simply a confirmatory report indicating the presence of the parent drug or its metabolites. Drugs which may be present in the urine specimen compete against their respective drug conjugate for binding sites on their specific antibody.
During testing, a urine specimen migrates upward by capillary action. A drug, if present in the urine specimen below its cut-off concentration, will not saturate the binding sites of its specific antibody.
The antibody will then react with the drug-protein conjugate and a visible colored line will show up in the test line region of the specific drug strip. The urine sample goes through a specified 'chain of custody' to ensure that it is not tampered with or invalidated through lab or employee error.
The first step at the testing site is to split the urine into two aliquots.
One aliquot is first screened for drugs using an analyzer that performs Urine testing of drug of abuse as the initial screen. To ensure the specimen integrity and detecting possible adulterant, some other parameters such as, urine creatininepH, and specific gravity are tested along in this initial test.
If the urine screen is positive then another aliquot of the sample is used to confirm the findings by gas chromatography — mass spectrometry GC-MS or liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry methodology. If requested by the physician or employer, certain drugs are screened for individually; these are generally drugs part of a chemical class that are, for one of many reasons, considered more abuse-prone or of concern.
For instance, oxycodone and diamorphine may be tested, both sedative analgesics. If such a test is not requested specifically, the more general test in the preceding case, the test for opiates will detect the drugs, but the employer or physician will not have the benefit of the identity of the drug.
Employment-related test results are relayed to a medical review office MRO where a medical physician reviews the results.
If the result of the screen is negative, the MRO informs the employer that the employee has no detectable drug in the urine, typically within 24 hours.
However, if the test result of the immunoassay and GC-MS are non-negative and show a concentration level of parent drug or metabolite above the established limit, the MRO contacts the employee to determine if there is any legitimate reason—such as a medical treatment or prescription. Although the accuracy of such tests varies with the manufacturer, some kits boast extremely high rates of accuracy, correlating closely with laboratory test results.
Breathalyzer Breath test being used on a volunteer. Breath test is a widespread method for quickly determining alcohol intoxication.
A breath test measures the alcohol concentration in the body by a deep-lung breath. There are different instruments used for measuring the alcohol content of an individual though their breath. Breathalyzer is a widely known instrument which was developed in and contained chemicals unlike other breath-testing instruments.
To get accurate readings on a breath-testing device the individual must blow for approximately 6 seconds and need to contain roughly 1. When pulled over for a driving violation if an individual in the United States refuses to take a breath test that individual's driver's license can be suspend for a 6 to 12 months time period.
Hair analysis Hair analysis to detect drugs of abuse has been used by court systems in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, and other countries worldwide.
As such, hair testing results are legally and scientifically recognized as admissible evidence. Hair testing is now recognized in both the UK and US judicial systems. There are guidelines for hair testing that have been published by the Society of Hair Testing a private company in France that specify the markers to be tested for and the cutoff concentrations that need to be tested.
Drugs of abuse that can be detected include Cannabis, Cocaine, Amphetamines and drugs new to the UK such as Mephedrone. Alcohol[ edit ] In contrast to other drugs consumed, alcohol is deposited directly in the hair.Urine is recognized as the prime matrix for drug test screening with well-established methods and testing protocols.
Its major limitation is with regard to the inconvenience of sample collection and lack of integrity due to adulteration, dilution, drug spiking or sample exchange.
The question is. Notice of Proposed Revisions to the Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs – Urine (94 FR - May 15, ) (PDF | KB) Preventing Prescription Drug Abuse in the Workplace Webinar (Video | 1 hour) SAMHSA Fact Sheets on Preventing Prescription Abuse in the Workplace;.
A toxicology test (drug test or “tox screen”) looks for traces of drugs in your blood, urine, hair, sweat, or tranceformingnlp.com may need to be tested because of a policy where you work or go to school.
FDA does not review drugs of abuse tests intended for employment and insurance testing provided they include a statement in their labeling that the device is intended solely for use in employment.