Top of Page Describe the organism s used in the study. This includes giving the 1 source supplier or where and how the orgranisms were collected2 typical size weight, length, etc3 how they were handled, fed, and housed before the experiment, 4 how they were handled, fed, and housed during the experiment.
Developing strong paragraphs My focus in this chapter is on the revision phase of the writing process.
I emphasize the importance of carefully examining both the content and structure of the paper to ensure that you meet the standards for graduate academic writing. You can now take your draft paper and begin to carefully revise it. Once you find enough information about a particular point, you may start refining your paragraphs.
Creating flow from your key point to sub-points For some ideas about how to develop a good paragraph, see the Purdue University Online Writing Lab — On Paragraphs. Please also review the University of Toronto Writing Workshop — Paragraphs and pay attention to the importance of beginning each paragraph with one of the key points in your argument referred to as a topic sentence.
In your topic sentence, you describe the element of your overall argument that you plan to address in the paragraph. If you find yourself moving away from your key point, start a new paragraph! As a general rule of thumb, restrict your paragraphs to about half a page in length, with one key point per paragraph and a number of supporting or sub-points.
The reader will likely lose focus on your key point if you run beyond one page per paragraph see the APA Manual Section 3. You can organize the sub-points in your paragraph in a number of ways Fowler et al.
In the examples in Figure 3. The unorganized paragraph below is the least clear and meaningful! Navigating end-of-life care with patients or clients requires reflexivity and self-awareness as well as openness to the worldview and lived experiences of the patient or client.
Health care practitioners cannot respond effectively and ethically to patients or clients at the end of their lives without critical reflection on their own beliefs, values, and potential biases about life and death. To a large degree, those elements of our worldview are shaped by the cultures in which we live, as well as by our own cultural identities age, ability, socioeconomic status, religion, and so on.
Many cultures embrace death as a natural part of the life cycle; others, particularly Western cultures, lean towards a collective phobia about death. Health care practitioners are more likely to allow their own beliefs and biases to surface when situations touch on heavy emotions or deeply ingrained beliefs, which often accompany end-of-life experience and choices.
They must bring those perspectives into conscious awareness to avoid directly or indirectly imposing their values on patients or clients. The practice of reflexivity invites critical evaluation of their own reactions before, during, and after encounters with patients or clients to ensure that client needs and worldviews are prioritized in their care.
Practitioners all hold attitudes, beliefs, or assumptions about health that can influence care for patients or clients. Most familiar to least familiar: Ways to organize sub-points within a paragraph. The type of organizational structure you chose does not matter; what matters is that you have a logical flow in your paragraph so that the reader understands your key point and sub-points.
Using transitional devices Using transitional words will increase the logical flow of ideas within a particular paragraph APA Manual Section 3. There are two types of transitional words. Pronouns may be used to link one sentence to the content of another.
Here are two examples: Wiseman stated that it is important for health practitioners to be familiar with provincial health regulations.
She noted that even the regulations pertaining to other health professions provide useful information. Wiseman stated that provincial health regulations should be included in health disciplines training. They often provide useful information that can be applied across health professions. In both examples above, you can tell which noun I am referencing in the previous sentence, and the pronoun I choose matches that noun Wiseman.
In the following example, it is unclear which noun from the first sentence is being referenced Wiseman and colleagues or health regulationsso the meaning is blurred. Wiseman and colleagues stated that it is important for health practitioners to be familiar with provincial health regulations.
They often provide useful information. Transitional words may also be used at the beginning of sentences to provide a link based on time, place, cause, purpose, and so on. Here is an example: In addition, some federal laws provide guidance in areas not covered under provincial legislation.
The Exercise 1 Feedback provides an idea of how the paragraph might be improved. Writing with clarity and conciseness Many graduate students struggle to write with precision.
You may need to eliminate words that distract from your intended meaning and choose words that clearly communicate that meaning. Conciseness or economy of expression. Many writers, even those who have been at it for a long time, find it challenging, sometimes almost impossible, to say things effectively, even when they specifically set out to do so, without using so many extra and unnecessary words.Transitions (ESL) What this handout is about though subtle differences in how they signal relationships between ideas.
This handout will help you choose the appropriate connector by explaining how some of the more common expressions function to connect ideas. (In academic writing, the phrase “contrary to” is far more common.
These are called transitional words and phrases. Transitional words or phrases sometimes will be precisely what you need to underscore for your readers the intellectual relationship between sentences or paragraphs—to help them navigate your essay. Transitions (ESL) What this handout is about though subtle differences in how they signal relationships between ideas.
This handout will help you choose the appropriate connector by explaining how some of the more common expressions function to connect ideas. (In academic writing, the phrase “contrary to” is far more common. Study Help and Tutoring Writing Skills Centre Search this Guide Search. Study Help and Tutoring.
Home; Transition Words. From the Academic Writing Help Centre at the University of Ottawa, a terrific handout explaining transitions! Subjects. Learn more about the subjects offered at UC using our A to Z of subjects..
University terms explained. See our university terms explained guide to get a quick explanation for some words commonly used on the UC website.. Study advice and planning.
Get help with study advice and tranceformingnlp.com is here to help you make an informed decision about what qualification might be right for. Study Finds Dark-Skinned Asian and Latino Teens Report More Discrimination. Preferential treatment based on the color of a person’s skin persists, despite Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of , which prohibits discrimination based on one’s race, color, religion, sex or national origin.