Abstract Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U. This systematic literature review aims to: Public stigma of mental illness in the U. Public stigma, Mental illness, Systematic literature review Introduction Public stigma refers to a set of negative attitudes and beliefs that motivate individuals to fear, reject, avoid, and discriminate against people with mental illness Corrigan and Penn
Publications and Resources Mental Disorders Get the facts on common mental disorders, such as those related to anxiety, attention deficit, conduct, depression, schizophrenia, and trauma.
The following are descriptions of the most common categories of mental illness in the United States. Anxiety Disorders Anxiety disorders are characterized by excessive fear or anxiety that is difficult to control and negatively and substantially impacts daily functioning.
Fear refers to the emotional response to a real or perceived threat while anxiety is the anticipation of a future threat. These disorders can range from specific fears called phobiassuch as the fear of flying or public speaking, to more generalized feelings of worry and tension.
Anxiety disorders typically develop in childhood and persist to adulthood. Specific anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder GADpanic disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder social phobia.
Phobias and generalized anxiety usually first appear around age 11, and they are the most prevalent anxiety disorders in adults. Evidence suggests that many anxiety disorders may be caused by a combination of genetics, biology, and environmental factors.
Adverse childhood experiences may also contribute to risk for developing anxiety disorders. Children with ADHD have difficulty performing well in school, interacting with other children, and following through on tasks. Adults with ADHD are often extremely distractible and have significant difficulties with organization.
There are three sub-types of the disorder: The disorder occurs four times as often among boys than girls. It is estimated that the prevalence of ADHD among adults is 2.
Current research suggests that ADHD has a high degree of heritability, however, the exact gene or constellation of genes that give rise to the disorder are not known. Environmental risk factors may include low birth weight, smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy, exposure to lead, and history of child maltreatment.
The three overarching features of ADHD include inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Inattentive children may have trouble paying close attention to details, make careless mistakes in schoolwork, are easily distracted, have difficulty following through on tasks, such as homework assignments, or quickly become bored with a task.
Hyperactivity may be defined by fidgeting or squirming, excessive talking, running about, or difficulty sitting still. Bipolar and Related Disorders People with bipolar and related disorders experience atypical, dramatic swings in mood, and activity levels that go from periods of feeling intensely happy, irritable, and impulsive to periods of intense sadness and feelings of hopelessness.
Individuals with this disorder experience discrete mood episodes, characterized as either a: Manic episode—abnormally elevated, expansive, or irritable mood accompanied by increased energy or activity that substantially impairs functioning Hypomanic episode—similar to a manic episode, however not severe enough to cause serious social or occupational problems Major depressive episode—persistent depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure Mixed state—includes symptoms of both a manic episode and a major depressive episode People exhibiting these symptoms are most frequently identified as having one of two types of bipolar disorders: The bipolar II diagnosis is used when there has been a more regular occurrence of depressive episodes along with a hypomanic episode, but not a full-blown manic episode.
Cyclothymic disorder, or cyclothymia, is a diagnosis used for a mild form of bipolar disorder. The combined prevalence of bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder and cyclothymia is estimated at 2.
A family history of bipolar disorder is the strongest risk factor for the condition, and the level of risk increases with the degree of kinship.
As mentioned previously, bipolar disorders are characterized by manic and depressive episodes. In children, manic episodes may present as an excessively silly or joyful mood that is unusual for the child or an uncharacteristically irritable temperament and are accompanied by unusual behavioral changes, such as decreased need for sleep, risk-seeking behavior, and distractibility.
Depressive episodes may present as a persistent, sad mood, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, and loss of interest in previously enjoyable activities. Behavioral changes associated with depressive episodes may include fatigue or loss of energy, gaining or losing a significant amount of weight, complaining about pain, or suicidal thoughts or plans.
Find more information about bipolar disorder on the NIMH website. They are characterized by a sad, hopeless, empty, or irritable mood, and somatic and cognitive changes that significantly interfere with daily life.
Major depressive disorder MDD is defined as having a depressed mood for most of the day and a marked loss of interest or pleasure, among other symptoms present nearly every day for at least a two-week period.
In children and adolescents, MDD may manifest as an irritable rather than a sad disposition. MDD is thought to have many possible causes, including genetic, biological, and environmental factors.A more recent estimate of the cost of schizophrenia and other serious mental illnesses (biplar disorder, serious depression, etc) from Dr, E.
Fuller Torrey in Q1, was that federal costs for the care of seriously mentally ill individuals now total $41 billion yearly and are rocketing upward at . Mental disorders are common in the United States and internationally.
In , there was an estimated Americans adults with a diagnosable mental disorder.
This is an estimate of million people. Mental disorders in the United States are diagnosed based on the DSM –IV, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the fourth edition. List of Disorders Mood disorders are a kind of disability that includes depression and bipolar disorder.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal behavior and a decreased ability to understand reality. Common symptoms include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, hearing voices that others do not, reduced social engagement and emotional expression, and a lack of motivation.
People with schizophrenia often have additional mental health problems such as anxiety. Mental disorders were one of the five most costly conditions in the United States in , with expenditures at $ billion.
(AHRQ) (PDF, KB) Over million persons have co-occurring disorders — that is, they have both a mental and substance use disorder.
Grant Programs and Services SAMHSA’s formula and discretionary grant programs support many types of behavioral health treatments and recovery-oriented services. SAMHSA’s services increase access to disability income benefits for eligible adults who are experiencing or at risk for homelessness.
Learn more about grant programs and services.